The Yorkshire Terrier is a small dog breed of terrier type, developed in the 19th century in the county of Yorkshire, England, to catch rats in
clothing mills, also used for rat-baiting. The defining features of the breed are between the size of 5-9 pounds (3.2 kg) and its Federation
Cynologique Internationale and in the Toy Group or Companion Group by other kennel clubs, although all agree that the breed is a terrier. A
popular companion dog, the Yorkshire Terrier has also been part of the development of other breeds, such as the Australian Silky Terrier

For adult Yorkshire Terriers, importance is placed on coat colour, quality, and texture. The hair must be glossy, fine, straight, and silky when
showing in AKC competitions, but yorkies can tend to have slightly waivy fur. Traditionally the coat is grown out very long and is parted down the
middle of the back, but must never impede movement. From the back of the neck to the base of the tail, the coat should be a dark gray to a black
colour, and the hair on the tail should be a darker black. On the head, high chest, and legs, the hair should be a bright, rich tan, darker at the roots
than in the middle, that shades into a lighter tan at the tips, but not for all dogs. Also, in adult dogs there should be no black hairs intermingled with
any of the tan coloured fur. A Yorkshire Terrier puppy, 4 weeks old, displaying the characteristic black/steel black and tan coat. Adult Yorkshire
Terriers that have other coat colours than the above, or that have woolly or extra fine coats, are still Yorkshire Terriers. The only difference is that a
typical Yorkshire Terriers should not intentionally be bred. In addition, care may be more difficult for woolly  or textured coats, or coats that are
overly fine. Coats may vary in color. For example, a grown yorkie may have a silver/blue with light brown while another might have a black and
creamy color.

A newborn Yorkshire Terrier puppy is born black with tan points on the muzzle, above the eyes, around the legs and feet and toes, the inside of
the ears, and the underside of the tail. Occasionally yorkies are born with a white on the chest or on one or more toes. Also, a few Yorkies are
born with a red tint in their coat, but that is only when the parents also have this trait. It is also common to find white patch on one or more nails.
These markings fade with age, and are usually gone within a few months. It may take three years or more for the coat to reach its final colour. The
final colour is usually a black/grayish colour. P. H. Combs, writing in 1891, complained about show wins awarded to puppies, when the dog's coat
does not fully come in until three or four years old, and the honor of winning such a prize (for a puppy) can therefore be of but little practical benefit
to the owner since the adult dog's colour cannot be exactly predicted. (can be black/steel blue/grey/gold/tan)

The typical fine, straight, and silky Yorkshire Terrier coat has also been listed by many popular dog information websites as being hypoallergenic.
In comparison with many other breeds, Yorkies do not shed to the same degree, only losing small amounts when bathed or brushed, and it is the
dog's dander and saliva that trigger most allergic reactions. Allergists do recognize that at times a particular allergy patient will be able to tolerate
a particular dog, but they agree that the luck of the few with their pets cannot be stretched to fit all allergic people and entire breeds of dogs. The
Yorkshire Terrier coat is said to fall out only when brushed or broken, or just said to not shed. Although neither of those statements agree with
what biologists, veterinarians, and allergists know about dog fur, allergists think there really are differences in protein production between dogs
that may help one patient and not another, meaning that some allergic people may not have allergic reactions to a specific dog, like the Yorkie.
For myself, I am allergic to most short breeds and the Yorkshire Biewers are the only dogs I can live with since I have severe asthma.

Owners may trim the fur short for easier care. For shows, the coat is left long, and may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a
neater appearance. Hair on the feet and the tips of ears can also be trimmed. The traditional long coat is extremely high maintenance. To prevent
breakage, the coat may be wrapped in rice paper, tissue paper, or plastic, after a light oiling with a coat oil. The oil has to be washed out once a
month and the wraps must be fixed periodically during the week to prevent them from sliding down and breaking the hair. Elaborate coat care
dates from the earliest days of the breed. In 1878, John Walsh described similar preparations: the coat is well greased with coconut oil, the dog
is bathed weekly, and the dog's feet are carefully kept in stockings.

The Yorkshire Terrier is a tan dog with a blue saddle. Particolors exist, although they are not correct for the breed standard. The particolor coat is
white with black/blue and tan. It is very rare to get a particolor, and if one is found, it tends to be very expensive. They Parti/Biewer comes from
Germany, but there is information in regards to the Biewer that you can find on my Biewer page. Some Yorkshire Terriers are liver or chocolate, a
brown colour; they are unable to produce black pigment.The breed is defined by its colour, and such non-standard colours may indicate health
problems or cross-breeding with other breeds of other colours. The AKC registration form for Yorkshire Terriers allows for four choices: blue and
tan, blue and gold, black and tan, black and gold. Colour alone will not affect whether or not a dog is a good companion and pet. Even though off-
coloured Yorkshire Terriers are advertised at premium prices, being of an unusual or untypical colour is neither new, desirable, nor exotic. Until
recently, mismatched Yorkshire Terriers could be crossed with Biewer Terriers, a new breed originated in Germany (note that this breed is not
eligible for registration in Germany, its country of origin. Until it is, no official club, world-wide will recognize the Biewer as being purebred) from
parti-coloured Yorkshire Terriers. Although the American Kennel Club will not deny registration of a Yorkshire Terrier on colour alone, the
Yorkshire Terrier Club of America has a directive that any solid colour or combination of colours other than black and tan" for adult dogs is a
disqualification, and dogs of solid colour, unusual combination of colours, and parti-colours should be disqualified.

The ideal Yorkshire Terrier character or is described with a carriage very upright and conveying an important air. Though small, the Yorkshire
Terrier is active, very overprotective, curious, and loves attention. Mentally sound and emotionally secure ones should normally not show the soft
submissive temperament seen in lap dogs. Because of this, it is advised that a Yorkie would not be suitable for a home with typical young
children- they are Terriers after all. Instead, they make ideal companions for older families with many more reputable breeders routinely only
homing to families with children older than about 8 years for the comfort of the dog,  larger yorkies (not tea cups) are better with small children.
Yorkshire Terriers are an easy dog breed to train. This results from their own nature to work without human assistance. Because they were
developed as a working breed then many need a lot of both physical and mental stimulation- with both long walks/runs but also indoor games and
training to keep their mind busy. they are known for being yappy, but from experience many have reported that a contented Yorkie is a quiet one-
that will happily curl up on your knee in the evening. Of course it must be noted that they are all individuals, with some being much more laid back
than others and the breeder should ideally be able to advise on the needs and temperaments of their particular line. The males are even more
loving then the females. Females tend to be more independent and snotty, while the males are little lovers. Yorkshire Terriers do tend to bark a lot
when doorbell rings, but this is very trainable. This makes them excellent watch dogs because they will sound the alarm when anyone gets near.
This barking problem can be resolved with proper training and exercise. Doggie doors are the best for potty training, place an open kennel at
doggie door, allows them to go in and out at their own discretion. After time, you can remove open kennel as he or she has now learned how to go
out the doggie door to relieve himself.

The Yorkshire Terrier originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a rugged region in northern England. In the mid-19th century,
workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small terriers. Breeding of the
Yorkshire Terrier was principally accomplished by the people mostly operatives in cotton and woolen mills in the counties of Yorkshire and
Lancashire. Details are scarce. Mrs. A. Foster is quoted as saying in 1886, If we consider that the mill operatives who originated the breed...were
nearly all ignorant men, unaccustomed to imparting information for public use, we may see some reason why reliable facts have not been easily
attained. What is known is that the breed sprang from three different dogs, a male named Old Crab and a female named Kitty, and another
female whose name is not known. The Paisley Terrier, a smaller version of the Skye Terrier that was bred for a beautiful long silky coat, also
figured into the early dogs. Some authorities believed that the Maltese was used as well. They were all originally bred from Scotch Terriers (note:
meaning dogs from Scotland, not today's Scottish Terrier) and shown as such...the name Yorkshire Terrier was given to them on account of their
being improved so much in Yorkshire. Yorkshire Terriers were shown in a dog show category (class) at the time called Rough and Broken-
coated, Broken-haired Scotch and Yorkshire Terriers. Hugh Dalziel, writing in 1878, says that the classification of these dogs at shows and in the
Kennel Club Stud Book is confusing and absurd in lumping together these different types. In the early days of the breed, almost anything in the
shape of a Terrier having a long coat with blue on the body and fawn or silver coloured head and legs, with tail docked and ears trimmed, was
received and admired as a Yorkshire Terrier. But in the late 1860s, a popular Paisley type Yorkshire Terrier show dog named Huddersfield Ben,
owned by a woman living in Yorkshire, Mary Ann Foster, was seen at dog shows throughout Great Britain, and defined the breed type for the
Yorkshire Terrier.

As with all other dogs, Yorkies have two sets of teeth in their life. The first set of teeth is the 28-piece deciduous teeth (often referred to as milk
teeth, baby teeth or puppy teeth. The second set is the 42-piece permanent or adult teeth. Sometimes the number of permanent or adult teeth
may vary, which is fine as long as they do not cause bad bite. When puppies are born, they have no teeth because milk is the only food they need.
The deciduous teeth will grow from the age of 3 to 8 weeks old, in the order of incisors, canine/ fangs and premolars. Yorkie puppies have no
molar teeth. Yorkie puppies will start to lose their deciduous or baby teeth when the permanent or adult teeth come in. The permanent or adult
grow when the Yorkie puppies are 4 to 8 months old. By around 8 months old, those teeth should fully develop. The permanent or adult teeth will
grow in the order of incisors, canine/fangs, premolars and molars. Molar teeth will develop at around 6 to 8 months old. Yorkies and other small
dog breeds may have problems if the deciduous or baby teeth do not fall out as the permanent or adult teeth grow. This is caused by the new
teeth not growing right underneath the deciduous teeth. (Usually, a puppy body will absorb the roots of puppy teeth.) If the puppy tooth does not
yield to the incoming tooth, it should be removed because it can cause a malocclusion or bad bite. Retained teeth can cause tooth decay
because food can be easily caught in between the deciduous and permanent teeth. Sometimes the new teeth are forced to grow into an
abnormal position and further cause a bad bite. The retained teeth may stay or fall weeks after the new teeth have developed. When necessary,
the retained deciduous or baby teeth need to be removed surgically, however, I suggest you use this method as last resort. Take out an old sock
and play tug of war for a few weeks to loosen those baby teeth, and putting your puppy under. It may take weeks or months, but I promise you,
playing rough with a sock or longer stuffed toy, will help loosen those extra teeth. Like other small breeds, Yorkies are also prone to severe dental
disease. Because they have a small jaw, their teeth can become crowded and may not fall out naturally. This can cause food and plaque to build
up, and bacteria can eventually develop on the surface of the teeth, leading to periodontal disease. In addition, the bacteria can spread to other
parts of the body and cause heart and kidney problems. The best prevention is regular brushing of the teeth with a toothpaste formulated
specifically for dogs. Human toothpaste is not recommended, because it foams easier and may be swallowed. Professional teeth cleaning by a
veterinarian may also be required to prevent the development of dental problems.

Low blood sugar in puppies, or transient juvenile hypoglycemia, is caused by fasting (too much time between meals). In rare cases hypoglycemia
may continue to be a problem in mature, usually very small, Yorkies. It is often seen in Yorkie puppies at 5 to 16 weeks of age. Very tiny Yorkie
puppies are especially predisposed to hypoglycemia because a lack of muscle mass makes it difficult to store glucose and regulate blood sugar.
Factors such as stress, fatigue, a cold environment, poor nutrition, and a change in diet or feeding schedule may bring on hypoglycemia. Low
blood sugar can also be causes the puppy to become drowsy, listless (glassy-eyed), shaky, uncoordinated, since the brain relies on sugar to
function. During a hypoglycemic attack, the puppy usually has very pale or grey gums. The puppy also may not eat unless force-fed. Hypoglycemia
and dehydration seem to go hand-in-hand, and force-feeding or injecting fluids may also be necessary. Additionally, a hypoglycemic Yorkie may
have a lower than normal body temperature and, in extreme cases, may have a seizure or go into a coma. A dog showing symptoms should be
given sugar in the form of corn syrup or NutriCal and be treated by a veterinarian immediately, as prolonged or recurring attacks of hypoglycemia
can permanently damage the dog's brain. In severe cases it can be fatal.

Traditionally, the Yorkshire Terrier's tail is docked to a medium length. Opposition to this practice began very early in the history of the breed;
Hugh Dalziel, writing about Yorkshire Terriers in 1878, declared that There is no reason for mutilating pet dogs, and perfect ears and tails should
be bred, not clipped into shape with scissors. American Kennel Club and Canadian Kennel club still require the Yorkies tail be docked in order to
compete at its events. The majority of the rest of the world has adopted a
'no docking/no cropping' rule. Often, a Yorkshire Terrier's dewclaws,
if any, are removed in the first few days of life, another controversial practice.

The Yorkshire Terrier breed descends from larger but similar Scottish breeds such as the now extinct Paisley Terrier and the Skye Terrier. In its
turn, other breeds have been created from the Yorkshire Terrier, such as the Australian Silky Terrier, and the Biewer Terrier, bred from a blue,
white, and gold puppy they later named Schneeflocken von Friedheck, by Mr. and Mrs. Biewer of Germany. Demand for unusual pets has resulted
in high prices being paid for Yorkshire Terriers crossed with various other breeds, which are described with a portmanteau word made up of
syllables (or sounds) from Yorkshire Terrier and the breed name of the other parent.

Teacup Yorkshire terriers is a term used by disreputable breeders and is applied to any abnormally small Yorkshire terriers. Usually a teacup is
any dog weighing less than 4 lbs (1.8 kg) when fully grown. There are many health issues associated with teacup dogs, such as luxating patella,
heart disease, hydrocephalus, hypoglycemia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, open fontanels and seizures. Breeding for is a controversial practice
that is not encouraged by responsible breeders. A fashion pressure, they are bred to appeal with their puppy-like features, rather than bred to
expel health issues. Usually they are inbred, breeding the runts of litters together until they gradually become too small. There is great risk to a
dam (mother) during pregnancy who is too small, most of these litters are a result of cesarean sections and have a high mortality rate. Tea cups
are NOT suited for very small children, larger yorkies 6 pounds and over are a smarter choice.

The Biewer’s body is that of a long-haired toy terrier whose hair hangs evenly and straight down the side of the base of the skull to the end of the
tail. The animal should be very compact and neat. The tail should be carried up. The outlines should give the impression of a powerful and well-
proportioned body. The hair on the body has a length of ¾ down the sides of the dog, or long enough to reach the ground, and is absolutely
straight (not wooly), shiny like silk and of fine silky texture, without an undercoat. Coloring of the coat of the trunk and the head piece are as
follows: rather white or blue-white broken or closely blue absolute, or black without brown coloring. Pure white hair on the breast, belly and legs.
The head is symmetrical colored white-blue-gold.

Biewers seem oblivious of their small size. They are very eager for adventure. This little dog is highly energetic, brave, loyal and clever. With
owners who take the time to understand how to treat a small dog, the Biewer is a wonderful companion! They are affectionate with their masters,
but if humans are not this dog's pack leader, they can become suspicious of strangers and aggressive to strange dogs and small animals.  They
have a true terrier heritage and need someone who understands how to be their leader. They are often only recommended for older, considerate
children, simply because they are so small, most people allow them to get away with behaviors no dog should display. This changes the dog’s
temperament, as the dog starts to take over the house (Small Dog Syndrome). Biewers who become demanding and dependant appearing to
need a lot of human attention and/or developing jealous behaviors, snapping if surprised, frightened or over-teased, have owners who need to
rethink how they are treating the dog. Owners who do not instinctually meet the dogs needs can also find them to become over-protective .
Biewers are easy to train, although they can sometimes be stubborn if owners do not give the dog proper boundaries. They can be difficult to
housebreak, if you find yourself at work all day with no time to train. The Biewer is an excellent watchdog. When owners display pack leadership
to the Biewer, they are very sweet and loving and can be trusted with children. The problems only arise when owners, because of the dog’s cute
little size, allow them to take over the house. The human will not even realize it, however know that, if you see any of the negative behaviors listed
above, it's time to look into your pack leader skills. These are truly sweet little dogs that need owners who understand how to give them gentle
leadership. If you own a Biewer that does not display any of the negative behaviors, high-five for being a good pack leader!

HEIGHT - Up to 8.5 inches (22 cm)
WEIGHT - 4-10 pounds (3.1 kg)
LIFE EXPECTANCY  About 13-17 years
Note: According to the BCTA the Biewer does not have a height limit in the standard. It has a weight and proportion requirement.

The Biewer Terrier tends to have a sensitive stomach, but with a good diet and controlled treat distribution, it does well.

The Biewer can live in an apartment if it gets enough exercise. They are fairly active indoors and will do okay without a yard.

These are active little dogs that need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, it will not fulfill
their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavior problems. If your Biewer zooms around
the house like a speeding bullet, it is a sign that he needs to go on more/longer walks where he is made to heel beside or behind the human.
Remember, in a dogs mind, the leader leads the way. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off lead, such as a large, fenced-in
yard. Also, a doggie door is great not only for potty training, but for you dog to run outside on his or her own.

As a companion most owners prefer to have this breed in a "perpetual puppy cut." A bath at home about every two to three weeks will maintain a
healthy coat if it is combed out with a wire comb once a week. Show Coat: The Biewer will develop a coat that reaches the ground. Some
breeders wrap the coat to produce a very impressive elegant floor-length coat for the show ring. Their coat is very similar to human hair, but it is
not suggested to use human shampoo as dogs have a different pH than humans. Using human shampoo can result in dry, itchy, flaking and
sometimes allergic reactions in their skin. It is best to always brush the Biewer that has been sprayed with a light mixture of conditioner and water.
Never brush a Biewer Terrier when it is completely dry as it may damage the coat. Ears should stand erect as young puppies, but not required
especially if he or she is a family pet. To keep them erect they must be trimmed every few weeks. By beginning about 1/3 of the way down from
the top of the ear, carefully snip or shave, with a trimmer finisher, the hair from the inner and outer ear surfaces.

The Biewer Yorkie was originally a piebald genetic recessive gene occurrence from two Yorkshire Terriers. It originated in Germany on January
20, 1984 from a breeding by Gertrud and Werner Biewer's Yorkshire Terriers. In this particular litter they produced a piebald Yorkie puppy from a
genetic recessive gene. This piebald puppy's registered name was Schneefloeckchen von Friedheck (Snowflake) Sire:  Darling von Friedheck, a
FCI World Junior Champion in Dortmund in 1981 Dam:  Fru-Fru von Friedheck, a FCI World Junior Championess in Dortmund in 1981. Gertrud
and Werner Biewer found this puppy to be quite beautiful and began a selective breeding process to produce more piebald puppies. Gertrud and
Werner Biewer named these Yorkies with white markings "Biewer Yorkshire Terrier à la Pom Pon." It was from these breedings the Biewer
Yorkie was developed. The breed was officially recognized in 1989 by the ACH (Allgemeiner Club der Hundefreunde Deutschland-ACH e. V)

Today Yorkshire Terriers and Biewers are considered two different breeds. Against the wishes of some of the Biewer clubs, some American
breeders are importing Biewers and crossing them with Yorkshire Terriers and calling them Biewer Yorkies. The clubs state, "Breeding back to
the Yorkie is a big no-no, as purebred is NOT achieved by breeding with another breed."
A hybrid breeder who mixes the Biewer and the Yorkie states, "There can be Biewer and Yorkshire color puppies in a single litter, but only in the
F2 generation. In the F1 generation, if you breed a Biewer and a Yorkshire, you get only Yorkshire color puppies (black and tan). If you keep a
puppy and breed this again to a true Biewer (third generation Biewer) you will get Biewer and Yorkshire puppies. If you keep again a puppy, no
matter if Yorkie color or Biewer, and breed this again to a Biewer you get only Biewer puppies." Find out more about multi-generation crosses.
The BTCA states they were involved in a two-year study with the geneticists at Mars Veterinary and were able to determine that the Biewer
Terrier is now a distinct breed of its own and not a tricolored Yorkshire Terrier.

The BTCA has changed the Biewer's written standard and also its original name to the Biewer Terrier. The BTCA, Inc. has the only accepted
revised standard signed by Mrs. Biewer. The revised standard allows for undocked tails and black in the coats. Any other standard being used
was not developed with the aid of Mrs. Biewer. It is said that Mrs. Biewer agrees with the Biewer Terrier name and not the Biewer à la Pom Pon.
She said the dog is a terrier and Terrier has to stay in the name. The “à la Pom Pon” was added for fun and means nothing.
Some breeders disagree with these changes, stating that is not the breed's name. The Biewer Yorkshire à la Pom Pon is also called the Biewer
or Biewer Yorkie
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